Author: Sunny Singh

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PART II: File Organization in DBMS

Approaches in File Organization One approach to mapping the database to files is to use multiple files and store fixed length records only in a specific file. An alternative is to structure ours files so that we can accept multiple lengths for records; however corrected files length recordings are easier to implement than variable length files. A lot of the…...

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PART I: File Organization in DBMS

Introduction A database consists of a large amount of data. The data is grouped in a table of the RDBMS and data records are assigned to each table. A user can see that the data is stored in tabular form, but in reality this large amount of data is stored in the form of files in physical memory. Overview of…...

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PART II: Deadlock and Starvation in DBMS

Deadlock Avoidance If a database is in a deadlock, it is always better to avoid the deadlock than to restart or abandon the database. The blocking prevention method is suitable for small databases, while the blocking prevention method is suitable for large databases. One way to avoid deadlocks is to use logic that is consistent with the application. In the…...

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PART I: Deadlock and Starvation in DBMS

Deadlock Definition A deadlock is a condition in which two or more transactions wait indefinitely to unlock the lock. Deadlock is considered one of the most feared complications from DBMS, as no task is complete and is pending forever. Example: The T1 transaction blocks certain rows in the student table and has to update certain rows in the classification table…....

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PART II: Overview of Distributed Database

Types of Distributed Databases Homogeneous Distributed Databases The locations use identical DBMS and operating systems in case of homogeneous distributed databases. The characteristics are as follows: The websites use very similar software. The locations use identical DBMS or DBMS from the same supplier. Each site knows all other sites and works with other sites to process user requests. The database…...

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PART I: Overview of Distributed Database

Distributed Database Collection of several interconnected databases which are physically distributed to different locations and they can communicate over a computer network is called Distributed Database. Features of Distributed Database The databases in the collection are logically linked. They often represent a single logical database. Data is physically stored in multiple locations. The data of each location can be managed…...

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PART II: Database Transaction

Definition of Schedule A schedule is a process in which a single group of multiple parallel transactions is created and executed individually. You must maintain the order in which the instructions appear in each transaction. If two transactions are executed at the same time, the result of one transaction can influence the result of another transaction. Below is the example:…...

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PART I: Database Transaction

Database Transaction A transaction can be defined as a task group. A single task is the minimal processing unit, which cannot be further divided. ACID Properties of Transaction The small unit of a program which can contain several low-level tasks is called transaction. A database transaction should maintain atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. These properties are known as ACID properties…....

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PART I: Overview of ODBMS and ORDBMS

Object Oriented Database Systems The object-oriented database management system is the data model where data are stored in the form of objects, instances of classes. This system is also known as ODBMS. Together, these classes as well as objects form an object-oriented data model. Components of Object Oriented Data Model OODBMS is based on three main components: object structure, object…...

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PART III: Overview of Normalization

Fifth Normal Form (5NF) If a relation is in 4NF as well as does not contain any join dependency as well as joining is lossless then the relation is in 5th normal form. When the tables are broken into as many tables as possible in order to avoid redundancy then it can be said that 5NF is satisfied. 5th Normal…...

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