Author: Sunny Singh

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Transaction Using ACID Properties Timestamp Protocol and Security Procedures – Part 6

Object Oriented Database (OODB) The object oriented database (OODB) delivers all the functions related with the object oriented paradigm. In this way, we can organize objects, create classes, structure an inheritance hierarchy, as well as call methods from other classes. In addition, the functions associated with the standard database systems are provided. On the other hand, object oriented database systems…...

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Transaction Using ACID Properties Timestamp Protocol and Security Procedures – Part 5

Database Administrator (DBA) The database administrator is accountable for guaranteeing that the database keeps its integrity as well as is responsible for confirming that the database is under no circumstances compromised. This person has the maximum power over the scheme implemented by the organization. Any modification or addition to this schema must be approved by the database administrator. Eligibility to…...

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Transaction Using ACID Properties Timestamp Protocol and Security Procedures – Part 4

Correcting Inconsistency Problems. The most common method to eliminating consistency issues is locking. The Database Management System (DBMS) can use the locking functions provided by the operating system so that numerous processes can synchronize their concurrent access to the shared resources. A lock can be granted to several processes, however a given object cannot be locked simultaneously in shared as…...

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Transaction Using ACID Properties Timestamp Protocol and Security Procedures – Part 3

Methods for Reviewing Database Management System (DBMS) Recovery Reviewing a Database Management System (DBMS) recovery should ensure that employees with specific responsibilities perform their tasks in accordance with policies as well as operating procedures. There are several useful audit techniques for Database Management System (DBMS) recovery. There are two ways to run the system again. First, any transaction that occurred…...

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Transaction Using ACID Properties Timestamp Protocol and Security Procedures – Part 2

How should timestamps be used? The timestamp order protocol ensures that two conflicting read / write operations are executed in the corresponding timestamp order. It is an alternative solution to the use of locks. For Reading operations: If TS (T) is < W timestamp (P), transaction T attempts to read a value of P data that has already been overwritten......

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Transaction Using ACID Properties Timestamp Protocol and Security Procedures – Part 1

Transaction – Definition A transaction is a set of modifications that must all be done together. This is a program unit whose execution may change the contents of a database or not. The transaction is implemented as a single entity. If the database was in a consistent state before a transaction, it must be in a consistent state even after…...

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Database Development Life Cycle, Normalization, Errors and Security of Database – Part 6

Database security Database security cannot be considered an isolated problem because it is also affected by other components of a computer system. The security requirements of a system are determined by means of a security policy, which is then enforced by various security mechanisms. For databases, security requirements can be divided into the following categories: Identification, authentication – Normally, each…...

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Database Development Life Cycle, Normalization, Errors and Security of Database – Part 5

Database Security The database security means to practice a broad range of information security controls to safeguard databases (which include data, database applications or stored functions, base systems databases, database servers as well as related network connections) to breaches of their confidentiality, integrity as well as integrity. It includes different types or categories of controls, for example technical, procedural /…...

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Database Development Life Cycle, Normalization, Errors and Security of Database – Part 4

f execution database processor then executes the database access routines. The results are returned to the application that first made the request. All runtime errors are also returned. Query Optimization Allow the system to obtain (or improve) acceptable performance by choosing a better (if not the best) strategy during the query process. One of the great strengths to the relational…...

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Database Development Life Cycle, Normalization, Errors and Security of Database – Part 3

First Normal Form (1NF) A relationship is said in first normal form (1NF) if it does not contain a non-atomic value as well as each and every row or tuple can offer an exclusive combination of values. As you can see, each and every row or tuple has an exclusive combination of values. In contrast to un-normal form (UNF), this…...

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